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Why Scientists Believe Stupid Things
“Most people who haven’t studied physics or chemistry find it hard to believe that humid air is lighter, or less dense, than dry air. How can the air become lighter if we add water vapor to it?”
Only dumb people that don’t understand science believe moist air is lighter than dry air.
“Scientists have known this for a long time.”
Whenever I see this statement I know that what follows will be based on conjecture that was put forth a long time ago and that has never been measured.
“The first was Isaac Newton, who stated that humid air is less dense than dry air in 1717 in his book, Optics. But, other scientists didn’t generally understand this until later in that century.”
They didn’t “understand”it? What’s to understand? Just measure it so you are not guessing. Jeez!!!
“To see why humid air is less dense than dry air, we need to turn to one of the laws of nature the Italian physicist Amadeo Avogadro discovered in the early 1800s. In simple terms, he found that a fixed volume of gas, say one cubic meter, at the same temperature and pressure, would always have the same number of molecules no matter what gas is in the container.”
This is just dumb. Note how they are just assuming moisture is steam. In fact there is zero evidence that moisture in our atmosphere is mono-molecular (steam) and there is a wealth of laboratory evidence that confirms that steam can only exist above it’s boiling point.
“Most beginning chemistry books explain how this works.
Imagine a cubic foot of perfectly dry air. It contains about 78% nitrogen molecules, which each have a molecular weight of 28 (2 atoms with atomic weight 14) . Another 21% of the air is oxygen, with each molecule having a molecular weight of 32 (2 stoms with atomic weight 16). The final one percent is a mixture of other gases, which we won’t worry about.”
This is just stupid. Note that they never even addressed the issue as to steam in our atmosphere.
Meteorologists are the dumbest people in science.
Molecules are free to move in and out of our cubic foot of air. What Avogadro discovered leads us to conclude that if we added water vapor molecules to our cubic foot of air, some of the nitrogen and oxygen molecules would leave — remember, the total number of molecules in our cubic foot of air stays the same.
The water molecules, which replace nitrogen or oxygen, have a molecular weight of 18. (One oxygen atom with atomic weight of 16, and two hudrogen atoms each with atomic weight of 1). This is lighter than both nitrogen and oxygen. In other words, replacing nitrogen and oxygen with water vapor decreases the weight of the air in the cubic foot; that is, it’s density decreases.
“Wait a minute, you might say, “I know water’s heavier than air.” True, liquid water is heavier, or more dense, than air. But, the water that makes the air humid isn’t liquid. It’s water vapor, which is a gas that is lighter than nitrogen or oxygen.”
Wrong, water vapor is not a gas. It is a liquids.
Moist air is heavier than dry air.
In a previous post I presented a challenge: What is the mechanism underlying non-Newtonian fluids? In this post I provide the solution.
In the previous post I provided a link to another video that contained a hint. We will get to that further along. First I would like to discusss another concept/conjecture for which I provided no hint but for which I had previously discussed in a prior post on this website entitled: Polarity Neutralization Implication of Hydrogen Bonds Between Water Molecules and Groups Thereof. Therein I asserted that unlike other types of bonds the force associated with a hydrogen bond is consumed (neutralized) by the completion of a bond between two water molecules. Consequently when a water molecule has two bonds on its negative oxygen molecule the polarity is neutralized and the resulting force of the bond disappears (2∂ – 2∂ = 0∂). So, when there are two hydrogen bonds completed the positively charged hydrogen atoms just kind of float. The only thing holding them is that if they move away the charge returns pulling them back.
However, and most significantly, when there is only one hydrogen bond completed then there is a considerable amount of the polarity induced bond strength remaining (2∂ – 1∂ = 1∂). This remaining bond strength creates a very hard bond. This is the same hard bond associated with ice. Through this we can understand why ice expands as it hardens since the hardening has to do with excluding one of the two bonds, forcing it away.
Through this understanding we can also, I contend, understand the strange behavior of non-Newtonian fluids: when force is applied the starch molecules, being very small, exert inter-molecular force on the water molecules. By tearing off the first of the two molecules (which comes off fairly easily) the starch leaves behind one hard connection. So, essentially, what is happening is that the starch is forcing the water to become ice for a fraction of a second. This explains the mechanism underlying non-Newtonian fluids.
Jim McGinn (AKA Claudius Denk)