BREAKING NEWS: Convection has been tested. And it has failed miserably, a long time ago.
The first practical steam engine, the Newcomen atmospheric engine, actually used the atmosphere to do the work (power stroke). It used steam as a means of creating a vacuum by lowering its temperature below the boiling point (using chilled water to assist). If H2O stayed mono-molecular below boiling point of H2O it could not possibly have worked. Convection is refuted.
“When the regulator valve V was opened, steam was let out of the boiler filling the space in the cylinder beneath the piston. The regulator valve was then closed and the water injection valve V’ briefly snapped open and shut sending a spray of cold water into the cylinder. This condensed the steam and created a partial vacuum under the piston. Pressure differential with the atmosphere then drove the piston down making the power stroke . . .”
And do you know what the most amazing thing of all is? The atmospheric engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712! This means that evidence the decisively refutes meteorology’s delusional belief that moist air contains steam (mono-molecular H2O) and, therefore, convects up through dry air was available and, frankly, common knowledge MORE THAN 100 YEARS BEFORE WALTER JAMES ESPY, THE STORM KING, ESTABLISHED THIS SILLINESS AS THE PREVAILING NOTION THAT STANDS TO THIS DAY IN METEOROLOGY/TORNADOGENESIS!
In short: This means meteorology’s notions of convection and deep convection are bullshit and deep bullshit. Parcel Theory is now, also, revealed as worthless rhetoric. Every paper that assumes convection–which is every paper in tornadogenesis–is now worthless.